Version 2 (modified by bennylp, 18 years ago) (diff)


Understanding Media Flow

The diagram below shows the media interconnection of multiple parts in a typical call:

Media Timing

The whole media flow is driven by timing of the sound device, especially the playback callback:

  • when the sound device needs another frame to be played to the speaker, the sound device abstraction will call play_cb() callback that was registered to the sound device when it was created.
  • the sound device port translates this play_cb() callback into pjmedia_port_get_frame() call to its downstream port, which in this case is a Conference Bridge.
  • a pjmedia_port_get_frame() call to the conference bridge will trigger it to call another pjmedia_port_get_frame() for all ports in the conference bridge, mix the signal together where necessary, and deliver the mixed signal by calling pjmedia_port_put_frame() again for all ports in the bridge. After the bridge finishes processing all of these, it will then return the mixed signal for slot zero back to the original pjmedia_port_get_frame() call, which then will be processed by the sound device.
  • a pjmedia_port_get_frame() call by conference bridge to a media stream port will cause it to pick one frame from the jitter buffer, decode the frame using the configured codec (or apply Packet Lost Concealment/PLC if frame is lost), and return the PCM frame to the caller. Note that the jitter buffer is filled-in by other thread (the thread that polls the network sockets), and will be described in later section below.
  • a pjmedia_port_put_frame() call by conference bridge to a media stream port will cause it to encode the PCM frame with a codec that was configured to the stream, pack it into RTP packet with its RTP session, update RTCP session, schedule RTCP transmission, and deliver the RTP/RTCP packets to the underlying media transport that was previously attached to the stream. The media transport then sends the RTP/RTCP packet to the network.

Recording Callback

The above flow only describes the flow in one direction, i.e. to the speaker device. But what about the audio flow coming from the microphone?