Version 8 (modified by bennylp, 16 years ago) (diff)


Toolchain Directory Structure

Directory Structure

For this tutorial, we will put the toolchain in /arm directory rather than the usual /usr/local. I prefer this approach since it's easier to manage (for example, to delete everything when things don't work or when we're finished with it, or to put it on portable drive to be carried to different system).

We'll put files related to installation in /arm/setup directory:

  +- setup
     +- download     --> Put downloaded .tgz files here
     +- srcs         --> Unpack .tgz source files here
     +- objs         --> Build sources here

Once the toolchain is built, they'll be installed in these directories:

  +- arm-elf
  +- bin
  +- include
  +- info
  +- lib
.. etc..

This tutorial assumes that you have write access to /arm directory.

Setup Environment Variables for the Build Process

 export TARGET=arm-elf
 export PREFIX=/arm
 export SYSROOT=${PREFIX}/sysroot
 export ARCH=arm

Prepare Toolchains

Download Latest binutils, GCC, and newlib

Download latest toolchain:

  $ mkdir -p ${PREFIX}/setup/download
  $ cd ${PREFIX}/setup/download
  $ wget -c
  $ wget -c
  $ wget -c
  $ wget -c
  $ wget -c
  $ wget -c

You will also need mkinfo from texinfo package to build the toolchain (for building the manuals etc). On Debian based system (Debian, Ubuntu, etc.) you can install it with:

  $ sudo apt-get install texinfo

Or if you're with RedHat (Fedora, etc), you can install it with:

  $ yum install texinfo

Preparing to build

Unpack archives

  $ mkdir -p ${PREFIX}/setup/srcs
  $ cd ${PREFIX}/setup/srcs
  $ tar xjf ../download/binutils-2.18.tar.bz2
  $ tar xjf ../download/linux-2.6.24.tar.bz2
  $ tar xjf ../download/gcc-3.4.6.tar.bz2
  $ tar xzf ../download/newlib-1.16.0.tar.gz
  $ tar xzf ../download/glibc-2.5.tar.gz
  $ cd glibc-2.5
  $ tar xjf ../../download/glibc-linuxthreads-2.5.tar.bz2

Build Everything

Build binutils

  $ mkdir -p ${PREFIX}/setup/objs/binutils-arm
  $ cd ${PREFIX}/setup/objs/binutils-arm
  $ ../../srcs/binutils-2.18/configure --target=${TARGET} --prefix=${PREFIX} --with-sysroot=${SYSROOT}
  $ make
  $ make install

(if you're wondering, that will take 5 minutes on a Core2Duo 2GHz)

Prepare Linux Kernel Header Files

You need to have ncurses development package to do this. To install ncurses development package on Debian:

  $ sudo apt-get install ncurses-dev

or on RedHat?:

  $ yum install ncurses-devel

Configure Linux:

  $ cd ${PREFIX}/setup/srcs/linux-2.6.24/
  $ make menuconfig ARCH=arm

(Note: don't forget the ARCH=arm part above)

We don't need need to build the kernel now.

Now lets fix include directories:

mkdir -p /arm/arm-elf/include
cd /arm/arm-elf/include
ln -sd /arm/setup/srcs/linux-2.6.24/include/asm-arm asm
ln -sd /arm/setup/srcs/linux-2.6.24/include/linux linux
cd ..
ln -sd include sys-linux

Update binutils Path

Before we build gcc and the rest of the toolchain, add the path to (thew newly installed) binutils.

(if you're using Bash):

  $ export PATH=/arm/bin:$PATH

Build gcc

First prepare newlib to be built along with gcc:

  $ cd /arm/setup/srcs/gcc-3.4.6
  $ ln -sd ../newlib-1.16.0/newlib .

Now lets build the beast:

  $ mkdir -p /arm/setup/objs/gcc-arm
  $ cd /arm/setup/objs/gcc-arm
  $ ../../srcs/gcc-3.4.6/configure --target=arm-elf --prefix=/arm --enable-threads \
                                   --enable-languages=c,c++ \
                                   --disable-nls --with-newlib --disable-shared \
                                   --with-fpu=-softfpa --with-float=soft
  $ make
  $ make install
  $ cd ..

(if you're wondering again, that will take about 8 minutes on a Core2Duo 2GHz)

Build glibc

Glibc headers:



  $ mkdir /arm/setup/objs/glibc-arm
  $ cd /arm/setup/objs/glibc-arm



  $ cd /your/pjproject/directory
  $ make distclean
  $ ./aconfigure --host=arm-elf --disable-floating-point \
                 --disable-sound \
                  CFLAGS='-I/arm/arm-elf/include -msoft-float -D_POSIX_SOURCE'
  $ make dep
  $ make

Common Problems

Link Errors Because of Floating Point Mismatch

You may get error about configure not being able to create executable, and config.log reveals error message similar to:

"/arm/lib/gcc/arm-elf/3.4.6/../../../../arm-elf/bin/ld: ERROR: /arm/lib/gcc/arm-elf/3.4.6/crtn.o uses hardware FP, whereas a.out uses software FP"

I think, it's because gcc was compiled without --with-fpu=-softfpa and --with-float=soft options above.

Conflicting Types

Something like:

/arm/lib/gcc/arm-elf/3.4.6/../../../../arm-elf/include/linux/types.h:19: error: conflicting types for 'dev_t' /arm/lib/gcc/arm-elf/3.4.6/../../../../arm-elf/include/sys/types.h:163: error: previous declaration of 'dev_t' was here